SONET SDH Training Fundamentals

SONET SDH Training Fundamentals Course with Hands-On Exercises (Online, Onsite and Classroom Live)

In this SONET SDH Training Fundamentals course, you will learn both the technology and applications of SONET/SDH. We will review the SONET/SDH system components as well as the end-to-end SONET/SDH network design process.

We will also discuss the essentials of SONET/SDH synchronization, control, network management, and practical deployment issues. In short, this SONET SDH Technology and Design Training course will give you the knowledge and skills you need to understand and deploy this important technology.

Optical networks are a key contributor to the rapid expansion of telecommunications services ow underway. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) have become the worldwide standard for the interface and multiplexing of user information to optical networks. SONET SDH systems allow much greater network flexibility and management over existing optical systems. The study of SONET SDH is therefore important for all involved with telecommunication and information technology.

SONET SDH Training FundamentalsDuration: 2 days

  • We can adapt this SONET SDH Training Fundamentals course to your group’s background and work requirements at little to no added cost.
  • If you are familiar with some aspects of this SONET SDH Training course, we can omit or shorten their discussion
  • We can adjust the emphasis placed on the various topics or build the SONET SDH Training Course around the mix of technologies of interest to you (including technologies other than those included in this outline).
  • If your background is nontechnical, we can exclude the more technical topics, include the topics that may be of special interest to you (e.g., as a manager or policy-maker), and present the SONET SDH Training course in manner understandable to lay audiences.

The target audience for this SONET SDH Training course:

  • All

The knowledge and skills that a learner must have before attending this SONET SDH Training course are:

  • N/A
SONET SDH Training Fundamentals - OBJECTIVES

Upon completing this SS7 Interface to Packet course, learners will be able to meet these objectives:

  • Understand the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of this field
  • Define the important SONET/SDH terms
  • Identify applications of SONET/SDH
  • Describe the detailed workings of SONET/SDH
  • Name the key components of SONET/SDH systems and describe how they fit together
  • Design a SONET/SDH  system
  • Describe the limitations of the SONET/SDH technology
  • List the objectives and characteristics of the next generation SONET/SDH systems
  • Describe the vision and structure of the Next Generation Network (NGN) project as it affects SONET/SDH
SONET SDH Training Fundamentals - COURSE SYLLABUS

SONET Technology and Terminology

  • SONET digital hierarchy
  • Comparison with the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
  • SONET equipment types
  • STS-1 frame format

SONET Headers

  • Section Overhead (SOH)
  • Line Overhead (LOH)
  • Path Overhead (POH)
  • Floating payload: SONET pointers
  • Synchronization and accommodating jitter

Virtual Tributaries (Containers)

  • VT groups
  • Virtual tributaries pointers
  • SONET VT multiframe
  • SONET mapping of asynchronous DS-1, byte-synchronous DS-1, asynchronous DS-3, and asynchronous DS-4

STS-N Frame Format

  • STS-N frame structure
  • Concatenated STS-Nc frame format
  • STS-Nc frame structure.

SDH versus SONET

  • SONET vs SDH frame structure
  • STM-1 frame
  • Overhead bytes and their function
  • SDH layers
  • Mapping in SDH: C4 mapping and C-3 mapping examples
  • Hierarchical multiplexing structure

SONET/SDH Networking

  • Network survivability architectures
  • Protection topologies: Linear
  • Protection topologies: Ring
  • protection topologies: Mesh
  • Topologies: Rings, # fibers, directionality
  • SONET: Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
  • SONET linear APS
  • Add-Drop Multiplexing (ADM)
  • Digital Cross-Connects (DCC)

Current Architectures: Ring Protection

  • Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR)
  • Bidirectional Line Switched Ring (BLSR/2)
  • Bi-directional Line Switched Ring (BLSR/4)
  • Mesh restoration versus ring/linear protection


  • IP over Optical Networks (IPO)
  • Packets over SONET (POS)
  • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) – RFC1661
  • SONET/SDH Limitations

Next Generation SONET/SDH

  • Virtual Concatenation: VCAT
  • SONET channelization and concatenation
  • Virtual concatenation group
  • Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme: LCAS
  • LCAS architecture

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

  • GFP client signal adaptation
  • GFP frame format
  • Adding GFP on SONET
  • Ethernet over SONET
  • Virtual concatenation for Ethernet

Optical Transport Network

  • OTN hierarchical overview
  • Basic transport structure of an OTN
  • OTN transmitter and receiver
  • OTN layer structure
  • OTN interface classes

Next Generation Network (NGN)

  • Merging the voice and data worlds
  • Vision of ITU-T NGN
  • Structure of ITU NGN Focus Group (FGNGN)
SONET SDH Training Fundamentals Course Wrap-Up

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